Born: 384 BC, Stagira, Greece
Died: 322 BC, Euboea, Greece
•Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who was taught by Plato he was born in 384 b.c. and died in 322 b.c., he wrote a renowned book called Metaphysics.
•His dialogue, reflects the Platonic view of the soul, imprisoned in the body and capable of a happier life only when the body has been left behind.
•According to Aristotle the dead are more blessed and happier then the living and to die is to find paradise.

Rene Descartes

Born: March 31, 1596, Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France
Died: February 11, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden
•Rene Descartes was a French philosopher renowned for his ontological argument, he is highly educated in maths and is the founder of Cartesian geometry.
•Descartes lack of education in other aspects was seen in school, however the one subject that he did have development in was maths which is the foundation to all of his work.
•Descartes lived as a Roman Catholic
•Descartes shut himself in a “stove“ to escape the freezing temperatures in Germany. inside, he had three visions, a divine spirit revealed to him a new philosophy. he formulated an analytical geometry and the idea of applying mathematical methods to philosophy.
•He concluded from these visions that pursuit of science would prove to be the pursuit of true wisdom and a central part of his life’s work.
•Descartes believed all truths linked together with each other, and finding the fundamental truth and linking it with logic will open the path to all science.



(354 – 430)

. Known as St Augustine – an early Christian theologian

. Influenced by Anthony the Great, Paul the Apostle, Cyprian and Plato

. He saw the human being as a perfect unity of two substances: soul and body.

. Augustine took the view that everything in the universe was created simultaneously by God, and not in seven calendar days like a literal account of Genesis would require.

.  He argued that the six-day structure of creation presented in the book of Genesis represents a logical framework

. Augustine took the view that the Biblical text should not be interpreted as properly literal, but rather as metaphorical, if it contradicts what we know from science and our God-given reason

. For Augustine, proper love exercises a denial of selfish pleasure and the subjugation of corporeal desire to God

. Augustine viewed women not only as threatening to men, but also as intellectually and morally inferior.

Gilbert Ryle


 (1900 –1976)

. British Philosopher

. Known for his critique of Cartesian dualism (assumption of that the mind and body aren’t identical)

. Influenced by Descartes, Schopenhauer and Wittgenstein

. Ludwig Wittgenstein, who thought many philosophical problems were caused by misuse of language – Ryle believed it was no longer possible for a philosopher to believe that it was his task to study mental objects opposed to physical objects. Ryle saw the tendency of philosophers to search for objects whose nature was neither physical nor mental

. Described both body and mind as a ‘field of causes and effects’ and likened the motion of the planets to a ‘clockwork’ he thought minds were ‘not bits of clockwork, they are bits of non-clockwork’

. For Ryle free will was invented to answer the question whether human beings deserve praise or blame. He interlinks free will with moral responsibility assuming with Kant that our actions must be moral to be free.


Born: 130 AD, Smyrna, Turkey
Died: 202 AD, Lugdunum, France

. Referred to as Saint Irenaeus who was a Christian Apologist

. The central point of Irenaeus’ theology is the unity and the goodness of God

. Irenaeus repeatedly insists that God began the world and has been overseeing it ever since this creative act; everything that has happened is part of his plan for humanity. The essence of this plan is a process of maturation: Irenaeus believes that humanity was created immature, and God intended his creatures to take a long time to grow into or assume the divine likeness. Thus, Adam and Eve were created as children. Their fall was thus not a full-blown rebellion but rather a childish spat, a desire to grow up before their time and have everything with immediacy

. According to Irenaeus, the high point in salvation history is the advent of Jesus. Irenaeus believed that Christ would always have been sent, even if humanity had never sinned; but the fact that they did sin determines his role as a saviour. He sees Christ as the new Adam

John Polkinghorne



. English Theologian

. John was a Christian (Anglican)

. He in turn argues along the lines of Augustine that science is dependent on faith to illuminate it

. Polkinghorne regards the problem of evil as the most serious intellectual objection to the existence of God.

. Polkinghorne accepts evolutionBelieves there is a distinction between believing in the mind and purpose of a divine creator, and what he calls creationism

Maurice Wiles

 (1923 –2005)

. In his work ‘God’s Action in the World’, he discusses the notion of a world that is consistent with Christian theology and the laws of nature.

. Wiles rejects the possibility that God directly intervenes in the world and therefore rejects the existence of miracles

. Wiles accepts God as the sole creator of the world, yet believes he does not intervene in the world for a number of reasons.

. He believed we should not see God as playing an ‘active role’ but instead hold the belief that God created the world as he wanted in its entirety