Rudolf Bultmann

(1884 –1976)

. German Theologian

. Influenced by Friedrich Schleiermacher and Wilhelm Herrmann

. Bultmann is known for his belief that the historical analysis of the New Testament is both futile and unnecessary

. Bultman argued that all that matters is the ‘thatness’  not the ‘whatness’ of Jesus such that;  Jesus existed, preached and died by crucifixion matters, not what happened throughout his life


David Hume


 (1711 –1776)

. A Scottish philosopher

. Hume was influenced by Locke, Descartes, Berkeley and Hobbes

. David Hume was not religious; He was a skeptic

. Hume advocated a compatibilist theory of free will that proved extremely influential on subsequent moral philosophy.

. He was also a sentimentalist who held that ethics are based on feelings rather than abstract moral principles.

. A major theme of Hume’s work, perhaps his core contribution, is that ‘reason’ cannot motivate our Beliefs. He believed ‘Feeling’ and ‘passion’ motivated our natural beliefs, judgments, and actions

. Hume claimed that our moral beliefs are simply based on our feelings/ moral attitude and that only these are capable of motivating us to action

. Hume says that our moral thinking is true in our physical understanding; we have a natural belief in causality

H.H Price


(1899 –1984)      

. Welsh (British) Philosopher noted for his study of perception and thinking.

. Influenced by H. A. Pritchard 

. In his book ‘Thinking and Experience’, he moves from perception to thought and argues for a dispositionalist account of conceptual cognition.

Edwin Starbuck


 (1866 – 1947)

. An American psychologist, one of the first to become interested in the psychology of religion

. Undertook research using questionnaires, which should highlight the connection between human age and religious conversion

. Led to conclusions that religious conversion, if it happens, occurs on average when the youth is 16 years of age

. Starbuck’s aim in starting his research in the psychology of religion was to bring about reconciliation in the feud between science and religion.

Richard Swinburne


Born: December 26, 1934

Died: aged 78

. British Christian Philosopher

. Influenced by Thomas Aquinas

. Has been a very influential proponent of philosophical arguments for the existence of God

. Swinburne presents many arguments to advance the belief that God exists, he argues that God is a being whose existence is not logically necessary but metaphysically necessary in a way he defines in his God of classical theism.




. Greek Philosopher/Student of Socrates

. Influenced by Socrates & Pythagoras

. Introduced the idea of forms such as form of good/beauty/justice, etc; The forms exist in another “realm” that is more “real” than the everyday physical world of material objects. The forms are outside of time

. Plato set up the fundamental dualism of philosophy, the distinction between idealism and materialism

John Hick


Born:  January 20, 1922, Scarborough, North Yorkshire

Died: February 9, 2012

Background: was a philosopher of religion and theologian. In philosophical theology, he made contributions in the areas of theodicy, eschatology, and Christology, and in the philosophy of religion he contributed to the areas of epistemology of religion and religious pluralism.